Khartoum Medical Journal <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Khartoum Medical Journal (KMJ)</strong></span> is the official medical of Faculty of Medicine University of Khartoum .<strong> S</strong>ince 2008, Khartoum Medical Journal (KMJ)&nbsp; is one of the leading international journal for presenting novel and fundamental advances in the fields of health education , medical education and medicine Khartoum Medical Journal (KMJ) is published every 4 months ( January , May and November ) , Open Access, Peer Reviewed and Fully Refereed international journal with NO&nbsp; processing charge. Writing a research paper is a skill and Khartoum Medical Journal (KMJ) have the team of Professors and Researcher who are dedicated to help, learn and improve that skill by providing a guidance for writing high quality research papers. In depth evaluation of each research paper is a prime focus of every member of Khartoum Medical Journal (KMJ) Reviewer Panel ensuring the novelty in each research manuscript being published.</p> <p><strong>Khartoum Medical Journal (KMJ)</strong> publishes original articles, health education , technical notes , review articles ,medical education , &nbsp;case reports, Letter to the Editor, commentaries , peer reviews,….etc.</p> <p><em><strong>Why publish with Khartoum Medical Journal?</strong></em>&nbsp;</p> <p>Khartoum Medical Journal is internationally recognized peer-reviewed journal. The journal publishes high-quality research papers, as well as reviews, policy bridges, commentaries, book reviews and short communications designed to help drive progress in all scientific fields. The journal's broad scope and active, influential Editorial Board make Khartoum Medical Journal unique in its position to support the broad communities in all areas of sciences.&nbsp;<br> <br>Our journal is here to support you, whether it is through publishing high-quality research or our commissioned reviews and special issues. By being community led, Khartoum Medical Journal is growing year on year in article quality and impact.&nbsp;<br>We hope you'll join us and choose to publish with a journal that supports you.&nbsp;<br><br> <em>More reasons to publish with Khartoum Medical Journal</em>&nbsp;</p> <p><em><strong>High Quality and Fair Peer Review</strong></em></p> <p><em><strong>&nbsp;</strong></em></p> <p>Together with our editorial board of over 30 active researchers across all disciplines, we provide excellent editorial service to guide your paper from submission through the peer review process to publication. In our peer review process, we aim for two expert referee reports on every article, ensuring quality and fairness.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Fast Publication</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Publishing your research quickly is one of our top priorities. You can immediately share your research with your peers around the world as soon as it is reviewed and accepted. We are fast - on average our papers receive a first decision in 3 to 6 weeks.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>High Publication Standards</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Khartoum Medical Journal publishes each paper to a very high standard in PDF. Our in-house production team ensures that your paper looks as good as possible both in print and online.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Personal Service</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The peer review of every paper in Khartoum Medical Journal is personally overseen by the Publisher. If you have any questions we are always on hand to help to make sure publishing is easy and stress-free, just email us!</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Multidisciplinary Scope</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Khartoum Medical Journal welcomes research papers from all Medical disciplines, from the most fundamental and theoretical work through applied and multidisciplinary research. Any paper reporting original and technically sound results will be published regardless of novelty.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Flexibility</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>We provide flexibility in formatting your papers. Your research paper doesn’t have to conform to a strict structure. While all submitted papers require essential elements, we do not impose any limit on paper length or the number of tables and figures.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Open Access</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Khartoum Medical Journal is a fully open access journal. Your article will be immediately and permanently available for readers to read, download, and share. Khartoum Medical Journal article processing is free of&nbsp; charges to encourage more researcher to publish their work&nbsp; .</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Aims and Scope</strong></p> <p>Khartoum Medical Journal&nbsp; is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that provides rapid publication of articles in all areas of educational research and Medicine.</p> <p>KMJ aims to publish research papers, reviews and short communications in the areas of medicine and medical research.KMJ will not only publish traditional full research reports, including short communications, but also this journal will publish reports/articles on all stages of the research process like study protocols, pilot studies and pre-protocols. KMJ is novelty attracting, open minded, peer-reviewed medical periodical, designed to serve as a perfectly new platform for both mainstream and new ground shaking works as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p>The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and health care providers all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of educational research</p> <ol> <li>Provide a forum for scientific and clinical medicine publications.</li> <li>Serve the medical community in Sudan and the region in the field of continuing medical education.</li> <li>Offer opportunities for the publication of serviceoriented research and disseminate information aimed</li> </ol> <p>at the promotion of health services.</p> <ol start="4"> <li>Encourage the development of medical and allied sciences research.</li> <li>Provide opportunities for development of expertise in medical and allied sciences education.</li> <li>Act as a platform for the expression of professional and scientific opinion and exchange of information.</li> <li>Provide a forum for the exchange of ideas and experiences in the field of education and training in</li> </ol> <p>the medical and health professions</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US (Abduraheem Farah Abduraheem) (Hazim Abdelrahman) Tue, 12 Nov 2019 17:29:23 +0000 OJS 60 Postgraduate training in internal medicine in the Sudan: Current situation and future challenges. <p>Postgraduate training in internal medicine in the Sudan<br>started in 1976 under the auspices of the Postgraduate <br>Medical Board (PGMB), Faculty of Medicine, <br>University of Khartoum and was continued until<br>2003. By then 203 postgraduate students qualified as <br>internists.<br>Because of the establishment of many new medical <br>schools in the country and in order to unify training the<br>responsibility of post-graduate medical specialization <br>was moved to a new institute: the Sudan Medical<br>Specialization Board (SMSB). The Sudan Medical <br>Specialization Board started training postgraduate <br>doctors in internal medicine in the mid 1990s and <br>graduated the first batch in 1999. To date 241 trainees <br>graduated from the SMSB as internists. However, <br>the number of graduates is likely to increase over the<br>next few years given that the registrars in training <br>at present are 369. Appointment of registrars for <br>postgraduate training usually occurs some 3 to 6 years<br>after graduation from a medical school i.e. after time<br>spent in internship, national services and sitting and<br>passing part one examination. Over the last twenty <br>years the number of medical graduates from Sudanese<br>medical schools has increased by more than 5-fold and <br>the curve is as yet to reach a peak.<br> Therefore, it will <br>be reasonable to predict that the number of doctors<br>going through postgraduate training will continue<br>to increase. There are other factors affecting the <br>numbers joining the specialty training including the <br>trend among postgraduate doctors to specialise rather<br>than remain in general practice and the popularity of<br>the specialty.<br>In the past, postgraduate doctors were sent to the<br>United Kingdom for training, but the available training<br>appointments for overseas candidates became less in<br>recent years2 and this, coupled with major changes <br>in immigration rules, makes it even more difficult for<br>overseas graduates to find training slots<br>1<br>. For these<br>reasons, it is likely that most of postgraduate training in<br>internal medicine will be conducted locally. Concerns<br>about the state and standards of local training have <br>(2,3)<br>repeatedly been voiced by the general assembly of the <br>Sudan Association of Physicians which recommended<br>that the Association should look into this. Following<br>that, a questionnaire was prepared by the author to <br>survey the trainers and trainees points of view regarding <br>training. The findings of this survey were presented at <br>a pre- Association of Physicians conference workshop <br>in February 2006. These findings were both revealing <br>and interesting and may be useful to those in charge<br>of postgraduate medical training for future planning.<br>The questionnaire was completed anonymously by a <br>random sample of 37 consultants and 67 registrars.<br>The areas assessed were: clinical exposure and <br>supervision and this was measured by registrarbeds <br>ratio, number of nights on-call, and consultants <br>availability for ward rounds and referred clinics;<br>formal tuition and this was measured by number of<br>tutorials and formal bed side teaching rounds; and<br>training in interventions relevant to the sub-specialty. <br>The findings of the survey were not dissimilar for <br>consultants and registrars and, therefore, the following<br>results were averaged for both. Half of the registrars<br>in training were looking after three to seven beds each<br>and only 18% were looking after 13 beds or more.<br>Only 57% of the registrars were on-call one day per <br>week and the rest did less than one-in-seven on call <br>rota. For those on-call days, 69% of registrars were <br>residents and the rest were not. Thirty two percent of <br>the consultants were always available for the ward<br>rounds and only 18% were always available for the<br>referred clinics. Regarding formal tuition only 48%<br>of registrars attended one tutorial cession per week<br>and only 22% received formal bedside teaching. Only<br>30% of registrars received training in interventions. <br>Clearly this survey highlighted many deficiencies in<br>training in the areas that were investigated. These can <br>be summarised in that many registrars were competing<br>for limited training slots resulting in a low registrarbed <br>ratio and fewer days on-call. Also, consultant <br>availability and supervision were remarkably low.<br>There is an urgent need for more training centres <br>to solve the present shortage. There should also be <br>a plan to accommodate the predicted increments in<br>registrar numbers. The Sudan Medical Specialisation <br>Board has a system in place for selection of a hospital <br>as a training centre and most of the hospitals which do<br>not get selected do so because of lack of medical and <br>teaching facilities such as radiology and laboratory <br>services. Because of these shortages, these hospitals <br>are obviously also deficient in delivering satisfactory<br>health care. There is not a better example that training <br>and delivery of good health services must go hand <br>in hand. Improvement in training should be part <br>181<br>182<br>of an overall health strategy that aims to improve<br>delivery of health care. The beneficiary will be the <br>patient. There is an urgent need for a formal contract <br>between the Sudan Medical Specialisation Board and <br>the trainers. This contract should state the duties and <br>rights clearly.<br>The outcome of this survey represents what should <br>be the beginning of a continuous assessment process<br>of postgraduate medical training. The process should <br>also include issues such as accreditation, continuous<br>monitoring and revalidation of training centres.</p> Ala Eldin Hassan Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Massive progressive scroto-perineal eumycetoma and its therapeutic challenges <p>No Abstract</p> Ahmed Hassan Fahal, Suleiman Hussein Suleiman,, El Samani Wadaa Mohamed, Abubaker Ahmed Yosif,, Sahar Mubarak Bakhiet ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 10 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The honeymoon phase in Sudanese children with type 1 diabetes mellitus <p>ABSTRACT<br>Background The honeymoon period (HP) refers to the period of time shortly after the diagnosis of <br>type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), during which there is some restoration of insulin production by the<br>pancreas, a temporary phase during which there is glycemic control and with longer period there is chance<br>to delay potential complications. Recently researches focused on prolongation or permanence of the period.<br>However very limited data is available in literature and this is the first study from Sudan. <br>Objectives to a) investigate for the frequency of occurrence of the HP among Sudanese diabetic children,<br>b) study its onset, duration and influential factors, c) recognize potential impacts and family attitude after<br>the honeymoon period gets over and d) assess doctors attitude during HP.<br>Methods This is a cross-sectional hospital-based study on HP among children with T1DM in three<br>specialized diabetic clinics in Khartoum State. Those who presented during the period June-Sept 2011were<br>included and data was collected using personal interviews. <br>Results A total of 136 patients with T1DM were enrolled; 26(19.1%) of them experienced the HP;<br>15(57.7%) were males and 11(42.3%) were females. The duration of time from the onset of DM till<br>remission was 3.2 ± 6.3 (mean ± SD) months. Twenty two (84.6%) patients recognized the HP through low<br>blood glucose level, 4(15.4%) had frequent attacks of hypoglycemia and decreased insulin requirements.<br>The mean duration of the HP was 5.4 ± 12.9 months. Insulin requirements were 0.4 U/kg/day in 14(53.8%)<br>patients during the HP while 0.5-0.7 U/kg/day was needed in 13(55.6%) patients after recovery. Age of<br>onset was below 5 years in 7(26.9 %) patients while 19(73.1%) patients were 5 years and above. HBA1c<br>measurements, 3 months after the HP were 5.8-6.1 % in 15(62.5%) patients, 5.4-5.7% in 4(16.8%) and<br>5-5.3% in 5(20.8%) patients.<br>Conclusion Sudanese children with T1DM experience HP in a frequency lower than that recorded in<br>other countries.</p> Mariam Z Mubarak, Ilham M Omer, Mohamed A Abdalla, Intisar A Khider ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 10 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of propolis on reproductive hormones of selective serotonin re uptake inhibitors (SSRIS)-induced sexual dysfunction in male wistar rats <p>ABSTRACT<br>Background It is estimated that up to 50-80% of patients who take SSRIs suffer from post-SSRIs sexual <br>dysfunction which affects the self esteem of victims. Invariably, it is often claimed to be intervened locally<br>by different concoctions. Propolis is a mixture collected by honey bees from parts of plants, and indeed<br>being exhibited now as “natural” sexual enhancer. The present study aimed at exploring the medicinal<br>activities of propolis on alterations in level of reproductive hormones which are key players in assessment<br>of sexual dysfunction.<br>Methods Sexually potent male wistar rats (140-190g), and equal number of sexually unexposed females<br>(120-130g) were used for this study. They were then randomly divided into 8 groups of six rats each<br>(n=6) after induction of sexual dysfunction with oral 10mg/kg b.w. paroxetine hydrochloride for 2 weeks<br>in groups III-VIII. Sexual dysfunction was confirmed through copulatory test with females. Group I was<br>treated with normal saline (control), group II was given propolis, group III was left untreated, group IV was<br>given sildenafil, while groups V-VIII were given graded concentrations of propolis, all over a duration of <br>60 days. Following this, the animals were sacrificed, and blood samples collected for biochemical analysis<br>of LH, FSH and testosterone.<br>Results The LH result showed that there was significant (p&lt;0.05) increase in propolis-sildenafil combination<br>treated rats, and significant (p&lt;0.05) reduction in other propolis administered rats, paroxetine untreated rats,<br>and sildenafil treated rats when compared to control. The FSH levels of non-induced propolis-administered<br>rats and propolis-sildenafil combination treated rats exhibited significant (p&lt;0.05) increase when compared <br>to control group. While there was significant (p&lt;0.05) reduction in paroxetine-induced untreated rats, all <br>other treated groups were not statistically significant (p&gt;0.05) compared to control. Significant (p&lt;0.05)<br>reductions in testosterone level were observed in paroxetine-induced untreated rats and high dose propolistreated<br>rats.<br>However,<br>all<br>other<br>propolis-administered<br>rats<br>and<br>sildenafil-treated<br>rats<br>were<br>not<br>significantly</p> <p>(p&gt;0.05)<br>different from the control.<br>Conclusion Propolis has a key role to play in reproductive functions in enhancing sexual ability if given<br>at different appropriate doses and timing in post-SSRIs sexual dysfunction, perhaps through modulation of<br>reproductive hormones in the hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis.</p> M.O. Hussien, M.M. Kardash, H.M. Abdulwahab, M.B. Hind ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 10 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000